Madison Blue Spring was once used by local inhabitants as a fresh water source. The waters flow from a large cavern 25 feet deep contributes to 23.7 percent of flow into the opposite direction of the Withlacoochee River, resulting in a large arc of clear water and swept river bottom.
The park is an internationally known cave diving destination and the cave systems provide recreational opportunities and spectacular underwater scenery. Over 26,000 feet of underground passages have been explored to date (Gulden and Coke 2014) and provides a habitat for three imperiled species of cave-dwelling invertebrates.
Located approximately 12 miles upstream from the confluence of the Withlacoochee and the Suwannee River, the park protects nationally significant examples of karst topography, including limestone outcroppings and an array of unique sinkhole types.